What is seen in tumor lysis syndrome?
The tumor lysis syndrome occurs when tumor cells release their contents into the bloodstream, either spontaneously or in response to therapy, leading to the characteristic findings of hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia.
What are the symptoms of tumor lysis syndrome?
Symptoms of tumour lysis syndrome may be mild at first.
Symptoms of TLS include:
- muscle cramps or twitches.
- numbness or tingling.
- decreased urination.
Which condition is associated with tumor lysis syndrome?
The metabolic derangement associated with tumor lysis syndrome are hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hyperuricemia. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and lactate dehydrogenase are also elevated in tumor lysis syndrome.
Why does hypocalcemia occur in tumor lysis syndrome?
Hyperphosphatemia causes acute kidney failure in tumor lysis syndrome, because of deposition of calcium phosphate crystals in the kidney parenchyma. Hypocalcemia. Because of the hyperphosphatemia, calcium is precipitated to form calcium phosphate, leading to hypocalcemia.
How is tumor lysis treated?
In general, treatment of TLS consists of intensive hydration, stimulation of diuresis, and, more specifically, in the use of allopurinol and rasburicase.
Is tumor lysis syndrome a good thing?
TLS occurs when there is a rapid breakdown of nucleic acids and lysis of tumor cells during or in the days following chemotherapy initiation, resulting in characteristic electrolyte abnormalities. All of these abnormalities can have lethal consequences.
Is Tumour lysis syndrome painful?
Uric acid can be deposited in the joints, causing a painful gout-like condition. A buildup of uric acid in the kidneys can cause damage and stones to form.
Who is at high risk for TLS?
TLS is not limited to patients receiving traditional chemotherapy; it can also occur in patients receiving steroids, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy, or radiation therapy. Patients who are dehydrated and those with existing kidney dysfunction are at higher risk of developing TLS.
Is tumor lysis rare?
Acute tumor lysis syndrome (ATLS), which occurs spontaneously, without cytotoxic therapy, is a rare condition. Spontaneous TLS (STLS) has been seen most commonly in lymphoma and leukemia.
What are the complications of tumor lysis syndrome?
Potential complications of tumor lysis syndrome include uremia and oliguric renal failure due to tubule precipitation of uric acid, calcium phosphate, or hypoxanthine. Severe electrolyte disturbances, such as hyperkalemia and hypocalcemia, predispose patients to cardiac arrhythmia and seizures.
Can you survive tumor lysis syndrome?
Prognosis in tumor lysis syndrome depends on the underlying malignancy characteristics. In patients with a hematologic malignancy, the mortality rate for tumor lysis syndrome is approximately 15%. The reported mortality of tumor lysis syndrome in patients with solid malignancies is reported at 36%.
Which drugs cause TLS?
Agents reported to cause tumor lysis syndrome include the following:
- Zoledronic acid.