What is a germ cell cancer?
Germ cell tumors are growths that form from reproductive cells. Tumors may be cancerous or noncancerous. Most germ cell tumors that are cancerous occur as cancer of the testicles (testicular cancer) or cancer of the ovaries (ovarian cancer).
Is germ cell tumor benign or malignant?
Like tumors that form in other places in the body, germ cell tumors can be benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The most common types of germ cell tumors include: Teratomas. These tumors are benign, but can become malignant.
Is germ cell tumor cancer?
Ovarian germ cell tumor is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the germ (egg) cells of the ovary. Germ cell tumors begin in the reproductive cells (egg or sperm) of the body. Ovarian germ cell tumors usually occur in teenage girls or young women and most often affect just one ovary.
What percentage of germ cell tumors are malignant?
Malignant germ cell tumors of the mediastinum are uncommon, representing only 3 to 10% of tumors originating in the mediastinum. They are much less common than germinal tumors arising in the testes, and account for only 1 to 5% of all germ cell neoplasms.
Can germ cell tumor be cured?
Germ cell tumours generally respond very well to chemotherapy and most people are cured. Even cancers that have spread are still very treatable with chemotherapy.
What is Stage 4 germ cell cancer?
Stage 1 — the tumor is entirely removed with surgery. Stage 2 — the tumor is removed by surgery, but microscopic cells are left behind. Stage 3 — the tumor has spread to the lymph nodes. Stage 4 — the tumor has spread to other areas of the body.
Do germ cell tumors come back?
How do providers treat benign (noncancerous) ovarian germ cell tumors? Healthcare providers remove benign tumors surgically. Sometimes, they need to remove the ovary (or part of the ovary) when removing the tumor. Benign tumors rarely grow back after providers remove them.
Do germ cell tumors grow fast?
This is a germ cell tumor that is most often malignant, but may also be benign. This tumor most often affects the ovaries or testes, and the lower spine. They are often malignant and grow fast.
Is germ cell tumors aggressive?
They form in the testicles and ovaries. It’s often an aggressive cancer that spreads quickly to the lymph nodes and other parts of the body. They’re typically treated with surgery and chemotherapy.
What is the survival rate of germ cell tumor?
The survival and cure rates also depend on several factors, including the stage of the disease. The cure rate for children with a stage I or stage II germ cell tumor is 90%. The cure rate for a stage III tumor is 87%. The cure rate for a stage IV tumor is 82%.
How are germ cell tumors diagnosed?
In addition to a physical examination, the following tests may be used to diagnose a germ cell tumor:
- Biopsy. A biopsy is the removal of a small amount of tissue for examination under a microscope. …
- Blood tests. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). …
- Ultrasound. …
- Computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan. …
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Do germ cell tumors run in families?
Familial clustering of testicular malignancies is well documented in literature. Children or siblings of affected family members are at higher risk for testicular germ cell tumors. A definite genetic mechanism cannot be attributed to this.
What are the two types of germ cell tumors?
There are two types of germ cell tumors that start in the gonads, or reproductive organs: seminomas, which are slower-growing, and nonseminomas, which are faster-growing tumors. These germ cell tumors typically form during puberty.
Can adults have germ cell tumors?
In adults, extragonadal germ cell tumors account for 15% of primary ante- rior mediastinal tumors . More than half of mediastinal germ cell tumors are mature teratomas. Among malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors, 40% are seminomas and 60% are nonseminomatous tumors.
Is yolk sac tumor a germ cell tumor?
Yolk sac tumors are the most common malignant germ cell tumor in children. Also called endodermal sinus tumor.