Targeting Type I IFN Signaling Pathway as a Promising Strategy to Overcome Resistance to Cancer Treatments
How do interferons work in cancer?
As an adjuvant cancer therapy, interferon targets any lingering melanoma cells and prevents them from spreading and growing. The treatment works by: Stimulating the immune system to develop T cells (a type of white blood cell that fights disease and infection) to attack melanoma cells.
What do interferons target?
Interferons are proteins that are part of your natural defenses. They tell your immune system that germs or cancer cells are in your body. And they trigger killer immune cells to fight those invaders. Interferons got their name because they “interfere” with viruses and keep them from multiplying.
Do interferons suppress cancer cells?
Accordingly, observations from two independent studies showed that IFN-α inhibited the growth of human prostatic cancer cells and murine macrophages stalling the G1-S transition through the increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKN)1A, best known as p21.
How does interferon gamma kill cancer cells?
IFN-γ induces apoptosis in tumor cells
IFN-γ exerts its tumor killing function directly by the induction of apoptosis or by facilitating non-apoptotic cell death, as well as indirectly by rendering tumor cells susceptible to apoptosis inducing function of the immune response or chemotherapies.
How can I boost my immune system to fight cancer?
Healthy ways to strengthen your immune system
- Don’t smoke.
- Eat a diet high in fruits and vegetables.
- Exercise regularly.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- If you drink alcohol, drink only in moderation.
- Get adequate sleep.
- Take steps to avoid infection, such as washing your hands frequently and cooking meats thoroughly.
What cancers does interferon treat?
Interferon alfa (IntronA, Roferon-A)
- kidney cancer (renal cell cancer)
- multiple myeloma.
- some types of leukaemia.
- some neuroendocrine tumours (NETs)
- non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
The interferons (IFNs) are glycoproteins with strong antiviral activities that represent one of the first lines of host defense against invading pathogens. These proteins are classified into three groups, Type I, II and III IFNs, based on the structure of their receptors on the cell surface.
How do oncolytic viruses work?
An oncolytic virus is a virus that preferentially infects and kills cancer cells. As the infected cancer cells are destroyed by oncolysis, they release new infectious virus particles or virions to help destroy the remaining tumour.
How does interleukins treatment work?
The treatment involves giving patients high doses of a protein, called IL-2, that’s normally present in small amounts in the body. IL-2 doesn’t attack cancer cells directly – it helps the immune system do the job by enhancing the ability of certain white blood cells, called T cells, to target and kill cancer cells.