How are chromosomal translocations involved in the development of cancer?

Why do chromosomal translocations occur?

Translocations occur when chromosomes become broken during meiosis and the resulting fragment becomes joined to another chromosome. Reciprocal translocations: In a balanced reciprocal translocation (Fig. 2.3), genetic material is exchanged between two chromosomes with no apparent loss.

What disease is caused by chromosomal translocation?

Translocation Down syndrome is a type of Down syndrome that is caused when one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. In this case, there are three 21 chromosomes but one of the 21 chromosomes is attached to another chromosome.

Which type of cancer is caused by translocation?

Examples of such alterations include deletions, inversions and chromosomal translocations. Among these rearrangements chromosomal translocations are considered as the primary cause for many cancers including lymphoma, leukemia and some solid tumors.

What causes a translocation?

A translocation is a type of abnormal change in the structure of a chromosome that occurs when a part of one chromosome breaks off and sticks to another chromosome. These “mutations” are an important cause of many types of lymphomas and leukemias.

Are translocations random?

Rather than representing a random event, recent studies indicate that chromosomal translocation is a non-random event in a spatially regulated, site-specific, and signal-driven manner, reflecting actions involved in transcriptional activation, epigenetic regulation, three-dimensional nuclear architecture, and DNA …

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What situation causes a deletion?

Deletions occur when there is homologous but unequal recombination between gene sequences. Similar sequences in the human genome can cross over during mitosis or meiosis, resulting in a shortened portion of the gene sequence.

When do chromosomal translocations occur?

Translocations occur when chromosomes become broken during meiosis and the resulting fragment becomes joined to another chromosome. Reciprocal translocations: In a balanced reciprocal translocation (Fig. 2.3), genetic material is exchanged between two chromosomes with no apparent loss.

How does balanced translocation occur?

Sometimes a section from one chromosome of a particular pair changes places with a section from a chromosome of another pair. When the two breaks do not pass through a gene and there is no gain or loss of material when the chromosomes are looked at under a microscope, it is called a balanced translocation.

What are some possible effects of these chromosomal mutation?

Changes that affect the structure of chromosomes can cause problems with growth, development, and function of the body’s systems. These changes can affect many genes along the chromosome and disrupt the proteins made from those genes.

How common are balanced translocations?

Since the number of chromosomes is correct, but a portion of one of the chromosomes has attached incorrectly, it is referred to as a balanced translocation. An estimated one in 560 people have a balanced translocation.